The historical inheritance of the Uva Province is a long and rich in the upturn of socio-political footprints. Uva Province is enriched in cultural, artistic, historical, political and social capacities rather than other provinces in Sri Lanka. There are two administrative districts called as Badulla and Monaragala in Uva Province. However, there are so many historical evidence to prove that the ancient geographical area is very larger than two such districts.
Prehistoric settlements of Uva Province are an integral part of Sri Lanka with the elementary stages of evolution of prehistoric human settlements and related hunting grounds. According to the scientific observations, the early representations confirmed by Paleolithic and Mesolitika sheila tools and other artifacts has been found in Madolsima, Bandarawela, Ravana Ella, Bibile Nilgala cave and Haputale. The tools made from crossbones stem were discovered in Ravana Ella and Nilgala fields are tallied with the same tools found about the time before 28,500 and 12,500 years ago in the wet zone.
Uva Province is rich in evidence of pre-historic settlements such as transit from forest culture to agricultural civilizations. As an example, there is special evidence found by two cemeteries among BC. 2400 – 450 in Haldummulla and Beragala.
Muthiyangana Rajamahaviharaya and Mahiyangana Rajamahaviharaya are central Buddhist temples in Uva Province. The history of such temples link with the Lord Buddha’s time. Moreover, Katharagama, Muthiyanganaya, Mahiyanganaya, Buththala Happoruwa and Vilathgoda Rajamaha temples are the importance of cultured adorable Bo trees, belongs to the Ashtapalaruha Maha Bodhi culture and the Dethispalaruha Bodhi culture.
Uva Province called as “Hoowakannika” in Anuradhapura era. King Dewanampiyathissa (BC 250 – 210), King Dutugamunu (BC 161 – 137), King Saddhathissa (BC 137 – 119) and King I Jettathissa (AD 263 – 273) were contributed lots of values for Uva Province. Uva Province called as “Hoowa” (Hoowaratta) in 11th century. In addition to Govinda Hela and Minipe were selected as the asylum area of residents of Uva Province in AD 1017 after the incursion of Soli Empire.
The King I Vijayabhahu (AD 1072 – 1073) has reformed Mahiyangana Rajamahaviharaya and Uruwela Rajamahaviharaya after his coronation and he has reformed the road to Sripadasthanaya via Uva Province. This Province was a battlefield in the control period of King Maha Parakramabhahu (AD 1153 – 1186). Moreover, in 13th century, residents of Uva Province called as “Wanniwaru”.
When Sri Lanka has become a colony of the British in 1815, they immediately appointed a governor for Uva Province. The Great Rebellion of 1817–1818, also known as the 1818 Uva–Wellassa uprising (after the two places it had started), or simply the Uva rebellion, was the third Kandyan War with the British, in what is now Sri Lanka. It took place in what is now Uva, which was then a province of the Kingdom of Kandy, against the British colonial government under Governor Robert Brownrig, which had been controlling the formerly independent Udarata (Up-Country in Sinhalese).
Uva Province has divided into seven (7) unit such as Binthenna, Wellassa, Viyaluwa, Buttala, Wellawaya, Udukinda and Yatikinda for administrative convenience. In addition to there were 30 Korala and 162 Arachchi divisions in Uva Province. Moreover, Uva Province has considered as a one polling division up to 1931. Also in 1931 – 1947 Uva Province divided into three polling division such as Badulla, Bandarawela and Bibila. After the revision in 1946 Uva Province divided into polling divisions as Aluthnuwara, Badulla, Bandarawela, Welimada, Haputale and Buttala. In 1960, Uva Province divided into two administrative called as Badulla and Monaragala.
Badulla is a very different geographical region in Sri Lanka and the physical landscape is more complex. It is the main reason for natural beauty and attraction of Badulla. The Welimada plateau gives more beauty of Badulla. There are few rivers, namely Uma oya, Loggal oya and Badulu oya. Moreover, there are very attractive waterfalls in Badulla such as Dunhinda Falls, Diyaluma Falls, Rawana ella Falls, Kanduru oya Falls and Bomuru Falls.
According to the rainfall patterns, there are four types of seasons such as first inter monsoon (March – April), Southwest monsoon (July – September), second inter monsoon (October – November) and Northeast monsoon (December – January). Uva Province is rich in highland grade rock called as Marble, Quartz, Dolomite and red / yellow petsolic soil.